What size generator do you need?
To choose a suitable size generator for your household, please follow 3 steps:
1. List out each apparatus you need to control.
2. Determine the beginning and running wattage of everything on your rundown. In the event that you can't discover these numbers on the machine name, you can utilize this wattage estimation control as a kind of perspective.
NOTE: Starting wattage (otherwise called “flood wattage”) alludes to the wattage a machine needs at fire up. This starting wattage is regularly 2 to 3 times higher than its "running" wattage, or what number of watts an apparatus needs to run continually.
3. Add the wattage together. At that point, utilize this number to manage what size generator you need.
Remember that a DIY wattage gauge is only that: a gauge. To play it safe, we suggest utilizing a wattage mini-computer or, far superior, having an expert circuit repairman figure the specific wattage you have to assist you with finding the correct size generator.
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1.What Factors Should be considered when purchasing a diesel generator set?
2.How to distinguish the main and standby power of diesel generator sets?
3.How to Start a Diesel Generator Set for the First Time?
4.Solution - white smoke of diesel generator set
5.Benefits of a diesel generator set
6.Diesel generators before installation things to check
7.The basic systems of the diesel generator set.
8.What is the difference between kW and kVa?
9.What is a power factor?
10.What is the difference between standby, continuous, and prime power ratings?
11.If I am interested in a generator that is not the voltage I need, can the voltage be changed?
12.What does an Automatic Transfer Switch do?
13.Can a new diesel generator parallel with one I already own?
14.How do I determine what size Generator I need?
15.What KVA size is needed given a known number of horsepower for my electric motors?
16.Can I convert my three phase generator into single phase ?
17.Can I use my three phase generator as three single phases ?
What Factors Should be Considered When Purchasing a Diesel Generator Set?
You’ve decided to purchase a diesel generator for your facility as a back-up power source and started receiving quotes for this. How can you be confident that your choice of generator suits your business requirements?
Power demand must be included in the first step of the information submitted by the customer, and should be calculated as the sum of the loads that will work with the generator. When determining the peak power demand, potential loads that may increase in the future should be considered. During this phase, measurement can be requested from the manufacturers. Although the power factor varies according to the characteristics of the loads to be fed by the diesel generator, diesel generators are produced as power factor 0.8 as standard.
Declared frequency-voltage varies depending on the use case of the generator to be purchased, and the country in which it is used. 50-60 Hz, 400V-480V is commonly seen when the products of generator manufacturers are checked. Grounding of the system should be specified at the time of purchase, if applicable. If a special grounding (TN, TT, IT …) is to be used in your system, it must be specified.
The characteristics of the connected electrical load are directly related to the generator performance. It is recommended that the following load characteristics are specified;
● Application information
● Load power characteristics
● Power factor of load
● Activation method (if there is an electric engine)
● Diversity factor of the load
● Intermittent load quantity
● Non-linear load amount and characteristics
● Characteristics of the network to be connected
The required steady state, transient frequency and voltage behaviors are very important to ensure that the load on the field can operate in a healthy way without any damage.
Type of fuel used must be specified in the event of a special case. For the diesel fuel to be used:
● Calorie value
● Cetane number
● Vanadium, sodium, silica and aluminium oxide contents
● For heavy fuels; the sulphur content must be specified.
ANY DIESEL FUEL USED MUST COMPLY WITH TS EN 590 AND ASTM D 975 STANDARDS
The starting method is an important factor for activating the diesel generator. Mechanical, electrical and pneumatic start systems are the most common systems used, although they vary according to generator application. An electrical starting system is used as the preferred standard in our generator sets. Pneumatic start systems are widely used in special applications such as airports and oil fields.
Cooling and ventilation of the room where the generator is situated should be shared with the manufacturer. It is necessary to contact the manufacturers for the intake and discharge specifications and requirements for the selected generator. Operating speed is 1500 – 1800 rpm depending on the purpose and country of operation. Operating RPM must be logged and kept available in case of an audit.
The capacity required for the fuel tank should be determined by the maximum required operating time without refuelling and the estimated annual operating time of the generator. The characteristics of the fuel tank to be used (for example: under ground /above ground, single wall/double wall, inside or outside the generator chassis) must be specified according to the load condition of the generator (100%, 75%, 50%, etc.). Hourly values (8 hours, 24 hours, etc.) can be specified and are available from the manufacturer upon request.
The alternator excitation system directly affects the load characteristic of your generator set and its response time to varying loads. Excitation systems commonly used by manufacturers are; auxiliary winding, PMG, Arep.
The power rating category of the generator is another factor affecting the generator size, reflected in the price. The power rating category (such as prime, standby, continuous, DCP, LTP)
The operating method refers to the manual or automatic synchronization between other generator sets or mains supply operation with other generators. The auxiliary equipment to be used for each situation varies, and is directly reflected in pricing.
In the configuration of the generator set, the below issues must be specified:
● Cabin, container demand
● Whether the generator set will be fixed or mobile
● Whether the environment in which the generator will operate is protected in an open environment, covered environment or unprotected in an open environment.
Ambient conditions are an important factor that must be provided in order for the purchased diesel generator to supply the desired power. The following characteristics should be given when requesting an offer.
● Ambient temperature (Min and Max)
In the event of excessive dust, sand, or chemical pollution in the environment where the generator will operate, the manufacturer must be notified.
The output power of generator sets is provided in line with ISO 8528-1 standards according to the following conditions.
● Total barometric pressure: 100 kPA
● Ambient temperature: 25°C
● Relative Humidity: 30%
How to distinguish the main and standby power of diesel generator sets?
The main power and standby power is often confused with the concept of dealers to confuse consumers,usually, people call it prime power and standby power. In order to let everyone see through the trap below as we described two different concepts, and the problem of error may be generated after purchase.
Diesel generator main power also called prime power, in China, are generally the main power to identify the diesel generator set. In the international arena and the standby power is called the maximum power to identify the diesel generator, the market often irresponsible manufacturers with the maximum power as a continuous power to introduce and sell the unit, causing many users misunderstanding in these two concepts.
Diesel generator sets in our country is to use the main power that is continuous power nominal, the unit can be used within 24 hours of the maximum power, which we call continuous power. In a certain period of time, the standard is every 12 hours within a period of 1 hours can be based on the continuous power overload of 10%, at this time the unit power is what we usually say the maximum power, that is standby power. That is, if your purchase is the main unit of 400Kva within 12 hours, then you have 1 hours to get to the 440kva, if you are buying a spare 400Kva unit, if you do not overload usually opened in 400Kva, in fact, the unit has been opened in the state of overload (for the unit the rated power is only 360Kva), the unit is very unfavorable, will shorten the service life of the machine and the failure rate is increased.
Clear understanding of the concept of the main power and standby power, we will be able to avoid falling into the trap of purchase, of course, but also pay attention to the choice of purchase and brand, quality assurance assured enterprise cooperation.
How to Start a Diesel Generator Set for the First Time?
Agestar brand diesel generator set will either have hand or electric starting.
Hand start: please refer to the engine instruction book, which will advise on decompression for that specific engine.
Electric start: starting and stopping of the unit is facilitated by means of a start/stop push-button. This is located on the control panel or a key switch.
Starting and stopping of the unit is via pushing the appropriate start/stop push-button. Or you can turn the key switch to a start position.
Next, check the set visually to identify the control panel settings.
Then, see if the set is programmed to start automatically. Ideally without any manual intervention.
SOLUTION - WHITE SMOKE OF DIESEL GENERATOR SET
Diesel Generator white smoke when running indicates water in the fuel.
Generator could be running without issue and then the clear exhaust smoke begins to turn white and then stays white means that there is some water within your fuel system.
This typically happens with diesel generators when microscopic amounts of water or a leak enters somewhere within the fuel system.
Fuel in the cylinders is burning off with the water content causing the clear exhaust smoke to turn a milky white in appearance.
If this is allowed to continue you’ll find the generator begins to hunt and may have difficulty supporting load and could drop the load.
What to look for and how to fix Diesel Generator WHITE SMOKE:-
• First – Check the fuel supply
• Second – has there been a recent contaminated fuel delivery
• Third – Check for water leaks that may have found their way into the fuel tank or engine block. Tighten jubilee clips around hoses. Check all hoses.
• Forth- change all fuel filters with NEW filters
• Lastly if the problem persists then fuel polish your fuel to remove any water
• Check your fuel tank has no rust or holes that water can enter through into the fuel
If you have fixed the problem, then start up the diesel generator once more.
Diesel Generator white smoke may begin first then turn to BLACK SMOKE and then finally after a few minutes the exhaust smoke should become clear.
Then the generator should be running smoothly without issues
In normal use a diesel generator should not produce continuous visible smoke (white, black or blue smoke) from the exhaust silencer.
If you see from time to time continuous BLACK SMOKE then:-1000kVA-Diesel-Generator-no-white-smoke
• First – adjust the fuel lines and fuel input.
• Second- Replace the fuel filters
• Third – replace the air filters.
• Forth – Check the quality of the fuel
• Lastly -Check the injectors for replacement due to age and contamination.
Should your running diesel generator ever show continuous BLUE SMOKE then check the following as soon as possible
• First – Is the generator OLD ?
• Second – has the generator run for over 10,000 hours?
• Third has the generator never been serviced properly for years?
• Forth – replace the head gasket and any gasket/seal around the fuel filters and the oil filters as soon as possible.
• Lastly if the BLUE SMOKE continues after all of the above have been done, then your generator requires a major re-build due to excessive run hours.
• Failure to replace ALL the ABOVE will cause major generator failure.
Benefits of a Diesel Generator
A diesel generator set is a power generating unit which converts the mechanical energy into Electricity. Diesel Generators have been essential for factories and commercial establishments, which need backup power, absence of power resulting in huge revenue losses for them. So, having ready backup power in times of need is critical for them.
With the temperatures routinely soaring to record levels during the summers, it is very common to find a diesel generator even in households and residential complexes nowadays.
Arguably the most popular form of Diesel Generator sets nowadays is the silent type. These Silent generator sets are powerful, economical, convenient and most importantly, noise free.
Benefits of Silent Diesel Generator Sets
When compared to other power backup facilities like Battery Inverters and Petrol Generator sets, silent Diesel Generator Sets definitely have huge advantages. These make them the gensets of choice among a wide range of enterprises and people around the world.
Some of the major advantages of using silent diesel generator sets are:
Fuel efficiency: As we all know diesel is much more economical than petrol or gasoline. This is why the running cost of diesel generator set per hour is much lesser than that of a petrol generator set. There are also fuel-efficient and can produce more electricity per litre of diesel than the generators running on any other fuel.
Low Maintenance cost: Diesel generator sets typically do not have any spark plugs in their engine. In other types of generators, these are the parts that require regular maintenance and replacement. The absence of these in a diesel generator set means that they require low maintenance and are extremely hassle free. Therefore, by buying a silent diesel generator set you can save on a lot of maintenance costs.
Design: The silent diesel generator sets are designed to be long lasting. Their rugged and sturdy design makes them ideal for operation even under difficult conditions, without requiring regular maintenance.
Variety: A wide range of Agestar generators are available from 10KVA to 2250 KV. You can select a model depending upon your requirements.
Low noise: As the name suggests, silent diesel generator sets are meant to create minimal noise. Their enclosures are designed to be soundproof and causes minimum vibrations. This makes them environment friendly and ideal for operation in residential areas.
Currently, there are many varieties of silent diesel sets available in the market to choose from. Among the silent diesel generator sets that are commonly available, the ones manufactured by Agestar are the most welcomed.
The diesel generator sets manufactured by Agestar with the following varieties:
•Open type / silent type / super silent
•Diesel generator set with famous brand engine,like Cummins,Perkins
•Dynamo are famous brands like Stamford, Mecc alte
•AI smart controll
Whether you need a diesel generator set for your commercial establishment or for your house, you can safely rely upon the silent diesel generator sets manufactured by Agestar. These are long-lasting, require low maintenance and are highly fuel-efficient, giving you reliable power backup at the least cost possible.
DIESEL GENERATORS BEFORE INSTALLATION THINGS TO CHECK
Things that you need to check before choosing your automatic power protection generator system.
Most important – you must ensure that the size and capacity are fit for purpose.
Hopefully by following these points, you will avoid making a wrong decision.
Diesel generator installation projects are a major cost for any business.
1. Most generators will only support 65% of their capacity upon startup
When selecting a generator , will it actually support the load without falling over?
Whilst any generator will be able to run at up to its full rated capacity, it can’t take the full load in one hit.
All standby diesel generators can only accept approximately 65% of their capacity upon startup from cold.
For instance, over size the generator so that the full initial load is no more than 65% of what the generator can accept upon startup.
Alternatively, you can install load shedding within your mains LV panel. By means of motorised switches and shunts, an automatic mains failure panel (AMF) can open designated breakers every 15 seconds ,which will cascade the load onto the generator. Implementation of a step load installation will therefore allow the generator to take the entire load without “falling over”. But, beware, never assume the power protection can handle any building load.
Emergency standby generators that are fully installed will automatically start up when a power outage occurs.It’s therefore vitally important to ensure that you identify the maximum load spike of your building.You should choose a generator that is at least 40% larger then your peak load of the last 12 months.Call Power Continuity for a Free Site Survey before making any decision.
2. Diesel generator sets should not run constantly at low load
Now you have an installed emergency standby generator, what’s next?
Never run generators constantly on low loads, for example ,less than 30%, as this causes wet stacking which will permanently damage the engine.
Of course it is difficult to prevent low loads at times , such as, a power cut at night when the building load is minimal.
Generator systems need to be correctly specified, to be able to handle the correct load factor of your building.
Otherwise, it won’t be able to support the load, when called upon in anger.
But it’s better for the generator to have larger loads , when continuously run, rather than bare minimum.
Please take our advice.
Every generator set must be load-banked at least once a year for 4 hours, to prevent wet stacking buildup.
Load-Banking up to the maximum capacity of the generator will remove any unburnt fuel deposits caused by wet stacking.
Thereafter, the installation will be as good as new once more and ready for action.
3.Generators should be tested regularly
Yes, obviously, it may seem like an additional expense that you’ve not budgeted for.But what is the point of a generator if you are not going to maintain it?
Brand new generators new regular service & maintenance to extend their life for ups to 35 years.
When you have a power cut, you want to have confidence in your system knowing that it will start up and protect your business.
The answer to peace of mind is to ensure you have a regular service and maintenance contract in force.
Secondly, you must test your generator weekly OFF load.
Thirdly, once every month test your diesel generator with building load.
The basic systems of the diesel generator set.
The diesel generator set mainly includes the following six systems:
1) fuel system,
2) oil lubrication system,
3) cooling system,
4) Exhaust system,
5) start system,
6) control & protection system.
What is the difference between kW and kVa?
The primary difference between kW (kilowatt) and kVA (kilovolt-ampere) is the power factor. kW is the unit of real power and kVA is a unit of apparent power (or real power plus re-active power). The power factor, unless it is defined and known, is therefore an approximate value (typically 0.8), and the kVA value will always be higher than the value for kW.
In relation to industrial and commercial generators, kW is most commonly used when referring to generators in the United States, and a few other countries that use 60 Hz, while the majority of the rest of the world typically uses kVa as the primary value when referencing generator sets.
To expand on it a bit more, the kW rating is essentially the resulting power output a generator can supply based on the horsepower of an engine. kW is figured by the horsepower rating of the engine times 0.746. For example if you have a 500 horsepower engine it has a kW rating of 373. The kilovolt-amperes (kVa) are the generator end capacity. Generator sets are usually shown with both ratings. To determine the kW and kVa ratio the formula below is used.
0.8 (pf) x 625 (kVa) = 500 kW
What is a power factor?
The power factor (pf) is typically defined as the ratio between kilowatts (kW) and kilovolt amps (kVa) that is drawn from an electrical load, as was discussed in the question above in more detail. It is determined by the generators connected load. The pf on the nameplate of a generator relates the kVa to the kW rating (see formula 0.8 (pf) x 625 (kVa) = 500 kW). Generators with higher power factors more efficiently transfer energy to the connected load, while generators with a lower power factor are not as efficient and result in increased power costs. The standard power factor for a three phase generator is 0.8.
What is the difference between standby, continuous, and prime power ratings?
Standby power generators are most often used in emergency situations, such as during a power outage. It is ideal for applications that have another reliable continuous power source like utility power. It’s recommend usage is most often only for the duration of a power outage and regular testing and maintenance.
Prime power ratings can be defined as having an “unlimited run time”, or essentially a generator that will be used as a primary power source and not just for standby or backup power. A prime power rated generator can supply power in a situation where there is no utility source, as is often the case in industrial applications like mining or oil & gas operations located in remote areas where the grid is not accessible.
Continuous power is similar to prime power but has a base load rating. It can supply power continuously to a constant load, but does not have the ability to handle overload conditions or work as well with variable loads. The main difference between a prime and continuous rating is that prime power gensets are set to have maximum power available at a variable load for an unlimited number of hours, and they generally include a 10% or so overload capability for short durations.
If I am interested in a generator that is not the voltage I need, can the voltage be changed?
Generator ends are designed to be either reconnectable or non-reconnectable. If a generator is listed as reconnectable the voltage can be changed, consequently if it is non-reconnectable the voltage is not changeable. 12-lead reconnectable generator ends can be changed between three and single phase voltages; however, keep in mind that a voltage change from three phase to single phase will decrease the power out put of the machine. 10 lead reconnectable can converted to three phase voltages but not single phase. Please read this article about changing voltages.
What does an Automatic Transfer Switch do?
An automatic transfer switch (ATS) transfers power from a standard source, like utility, to emergency power, such as a generator, when the standard source fails. An ATS senses the power interruption on the line and in turn signals the engine panel to start. When the standard source is restored to normal power the ATS transfers power back to the standard source and shuts the generator down. Automatic Transfer Switches are often used in high availability environments such as data centers, manufacturing plans, telecommunication networks and so forth.
Can a new diesel generator parallel with one I already own?
Generator sets can be paralleled for either redundancy or capacity requirements. Paralleling generators allows you to electrically join them to combine their power output. Paralleling identical generators will not be problematic but some extensive thought should go into the overall design based on the primary purpose of your system. If you are trying to parallel unlike generators the design and installation can be more complex and you must keep in mind the affects of engine configuration, generator design, and regulator design, just to name a few.
How do I determine what size Generator I need?
Getting a generator that can handle all your power generation needs is one of the most critical aspects of the purchasing decision. Whether you are interested in prime or standby power, if your new generator can't meet your specific requirements then it simply won't be doing anyone any good because it can put undue stress on the unit and even damage some of the devices connected to it. Determining exactly what size of generator to get is often very difficult and involves a number of factors and considerations.
What KVA size is needed given a known number of horsepower for my electric motors?
In general, multiply the total number of horsepower of your electric motors by 3.78. So if you have a 25 horsepower three phase motor, you will need 25 x 3.78 = 94.50 KVA to be able to start your electric motor direct on line.
Can I convert my three phase generator into single phase ?
Yes it can be done, but you end up with just 1/3 the output and the same fuel consumption. So a 100 kva three phase generator, when converted to single phase will become a 33 kva single phase. Your cost of fuel per kva would be three times more. So if your requirements are just for single phase, get a true single phase genset, not a converted one.
Can I use my three phase generator as three single phases ?
Yes it can be done. However, electrical power loads on each phase must be balanced so as not to give unneccesary strain on the engine. An unbalanced three phase genset will damage your genset leading to very expensive repairs.